Yaji 5th September 2004

This, the 9th meeting of the London Youlan Qin Society, was held at the home of Cheng Yu in London. Qin scholar Yip Mingmei was our guest speaker.

Programme

  1. Yip Mingmei - "Women qin players" - lecture
  2. Yip Mingmei - Meihua San Nong (Three Variations on the Plum Blossom), Changmen Yuan (Lament at the Changmen Palace - qin & voice)
  3. Julian Joseph: Tian Lai (Sounds of Nauture, from the Shiyi Xian Guan Qinpu)
  4. Cheng Yu - Ping Sha Luo Yan (Wild Geese Descending on the Sandbank - Guan Pinghu version)
  5. Charlie Huang: Yu Qiao Wen Da (Dialogue of the Fisherman and the Woodcutter)
  6. Yeh Shihhua: Xiao Xiang Shui Yun (Mist and Clouds over the Xiao and Xiang Rivers)
    All pieces were played on a  qin made by Zeng Chengwei in Chengdu, southwestern China, approximately 6 years ago.

Introduction

Cheng Yu began the proceedings by welcoming Yip Mingmei. She then gave us a news update for the benefit of those not fortunate enough to have attended the Chinese music summer school or the various Chinese music concerts held this summer. Julian Joseph gave a brief account of the qin classes at the summer school. Then Yip Mingmei gave talks on two subjects: Women Qin Players ansd Nurturing Life.

The Chinese Music Summer School

A Chinese Music Summer School was held at the Royal Academy of Music during the last week of July. There were four classes: qin (with Professor Li Xiangting), pipa, erhu, flutes and erhu. It was a resounding success; everyone who attended got a lot out of it, and said it was excellent. See Summer School report for a full report.

The Qin Class

The qin class led by Professor Li had a group of 9 learners. Tuition was mainly on an individual basis. In addition to learning and correcting basic fingering techniques, participants developed their knowledge of the tablature notation, tuning and maintenance, and the aesthetics and philosophy of the instrument. Pieces learnt included: Guanshan Yue (Moon Over the Yang Pass), Ping Sha Luo Yan (Geese Descending on the Sandy Isle), Tian Lai (Sounds of Nature), and Dongting Qiu Si (Autumn Thoughts at Dongting Lake).

Concerts

There were a number of concerts of Chinese music this summer in connection both with the Summer School and the Silk Road exhibition being held at the British Library. Cheng Yu and Li Xiangting held concerts at the Purcell Room in the South Bank Centre and at Lady Chapel, Ely Cathedral, Cambridge. The latter venue had spectacularly fine acoustics.

For the Silk Road Exhibition, Yoyo Ma's Silk Road Ensemble performed in the Proms. As well as Chinese music, there was also music from Mongolia, Armenia, India and Iran. The Proms also featured a performance of Bright Sheng's highly contemporary piece for four Chinese instruments and symphony orchestra. In addition, there were performances of music by Tan Dun and Zhou Long.

Women Qin Players

The following is a brief summary of Yip Mingmei's talk on the subject:

In ancient times, the qin was widely played by people of all walks of life, and by women at least as much as by men. In the Shi Jing (Book of Odes), there is a passage which says "Fair young maidens, let us welcome them with qin and se". In the Zhou dynasty, (3100-221 BC), it was widely played by song girls, courtesans etc., some of them becoming quite famous. In the Han Dynasty, famous names included Cai Wenji, who as a child, when she heard her father break a string while playing his qin, is said to have been able tell immediately which string he broke. Guanyin, the bodhisattva of compassion, is sometimes depicted playing a qin.

By  the Tang Dynasty, however, the qin had become primarily the instrument of the literati, and women were strongly discouraged from playing, or even listening to, qin music. Out of a list of 85 famous qin players compiled in the Tang dynasty, only 3 were women. There were numerous rules specifying who could and who could not hear or play the qin. It was even said that a qin should be stored away from "dust, dirt, places where women live...". Nevertheless, there were a number of courtesans who were famous for their on the qin playing skills. They were analogous to the geisha of Japan. Many of them became Daoist nuns when they became too old to be courtesans, as it was the only secure way to obtain food, shelter and respectability.

In the last few decades, with the revival of qin music in China, women are once again playing in at least equal numbers to men. Yip Mingmei's qin teacher, Tsar Teh Yun, is the most important qin player in Hong Kong today. She is 100 years old this year, and still plays.

Nurturing Life

The following is a summary of Yip Mingmei's talk on the subject:

There were 3 streams of qin culture: for high-ranking officials, the qin was a ritual instrument; for scholars, it was a Daoist instrument; for court musicians it was purely a musical instrument.For the first two of these, technical virtuosity was unimportant, indeed was often condemned as superficial. For the officials and scholars, though the pure and quiet tones elevated the mind (and body) to a meditative state. Many authors, e.g. Zhuangzi and Laozi, mentioned its use for regulating the breath and the qi. Many old documents exhort qin players to do finger exercises and taiqi. This is important for those who play qin in order to nurture life. It is not necessary for those who treat it purely as a musical instrument.

Qin playing has similarities to taiqi and calligraphy, as well as to yoga. The long slides and long vibrati create space, as does the "flying white" (spaces where you don't see any ink) in calligraphy. In these spaces one can rest the spirit, which is perhaps why qin players tend to live a long time. The sequence of long slides in Ping Sha Luo Yan are a good example. Literati players play up to 6 of these, even though they soon cease to be audible. Musicians, on the other hand, often play only about two, there being no point in playing more when they cannot be heard. With other instruments, such as the zheng, the means to create these spaces does not exist.
 
 
Yip Mingmei plays Ping Sha Luo Yan

 
 
 
 

Copyright the London Youlan Qin Society, September 2004. All rights reserved.